A citation serves two main purposes: it gives credit to the author, artist, or creator, and it allows your reader to find the book, article, or photogragh.
A style guide shows you how to format your foot notes, bibliographies, or works cited lists.
Citation style manuals are available at the Reference Desk.
Citation is your indication that certain material in your work came from another source. It also provides readers with the information necessary to find that source again. Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing.
The following situations almost always require citation:
Adapted from: Plagiarism.org
A book with two authors:
Authors’ names (only the first is reversed). Title. Publisher, Year.
Cole, George F. and Christopher E. Smith. Criminal Justice in America. Wadsworth, 1996.
An article in a scholarly journal:
Author. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Volume number, Issue number, Month or season (if available) Year, Page numbers.
Goldsmith, Meredith. “White Skin, White Mask: Passing, Posing, and Performing in The Great Gatsby.” MFS Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 49, no. 3, Fall 2003, pp. 443-68.
A newspaper or magazine article published on the web:
Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper or Magazine Title, Date of Publication (if available), URL (without http:// or https://).
Nordland, Rod. "Iran Plays Host to Delegations after Iraq Elections." New York Times, 1 Apr. 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/04/02/world/middleeast/02iraq.html?_r=0.
A publication in an online database:
Author. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Volume number, Issue number, Month or season (if available) Year, Page numbers. Name of Database, URL (without http:// or https://). Note: In terms of volume and issue, one or both may be available.
Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000, pp. 17-18. Project Muse, muse.jhu.edu/article/37463.
NOTE: MLA now requires full URLs for online material. For online articles within a database, you should look for a stable link to an article (permalink). However, if your article includes a DOI (digital object identifier), that information should be provided instead of the URL. Look for the DOI in the article's detailed record.
Here are some great resources to help with proper citation styles:
This research platform offers tools for note-taking, outlining, citation, document archiving/annotation and collaborative research and writing. You will need to create a personal account to save your work.
The Monmouth University Writing Center provides style sheets for writing, grammar, citation styles and the writing process on its Resources for Writers page. One-on-one assistance available by appointment.
This platform offers tools that assist with collecting, organizing and citing research as well as for collaborative research and writing. You will need to create a personal account to save your work.