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NU 201: Nursing I: PICO Question & Search Strategy

Guides for PICO

P.I.C.O. Model for Clinical Questions

P

Patient, Population, or Problem

How would I describe a group of patients similar to mine?

I

Intervention, Prognostic Factor, or Exposure

Which main intervention, prognostic factor, or exposure am I considering?

C

Comparison of Intervention

What is the main alternative to compare with the intervention?

O

Outcome you would like to measure or achieve

What can I hope to accomplish, measure, improve, or affect?

 

What type of question are you asking?

Diagnosis, Etiology/Harm, Therapy, Prognosis, Prevention

 

Type of study you want to find

What would be the best study design/methodology?

 

Using P.I.C.O. for searching to support evidence

Clinical question is:

In patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity, is bariatric surgery more effective than standard medical therapy at increasing the probability of remission of diabetes?

It is a therapy question and the best evidence would be a randomized controlled trial (RCT). If we found numerous RCTs, then we might want to look for a systematic review.

PICO

Clinical Question

Search Strategy

Patient/Problem

Obese, diabetes type 2

Diabetes type 2, obesity

Intervention

Stomach stapling (gastric bypass surgery; bariatric surgery)

Bariatric surgery

Comparison

Standard medical care

 

Outcome

Remission of diabetes; weight loss; mortality

 

Type of question

Therapy

 

Type of study

RCT

Clinical query – therapy/narrow

Or

Limit to randomized controlled trial as publication type