The followed annotated bibliography, compiled by Monmouth University undergraduate intern Mara Manzar and graduate assistant Maggie Smith, reflects both sources used in the creation of this exhibit and those simply suggested for further reading. The list is not comprehensive and we encourage interested parties to check with the library for additional resources.
Assistance in the Aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. 2012. Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.
House of Representative member Albio Sires, of District D, released in a press statement information concerning the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy had a devastating impact on multiple New Jersey communities. Sires stated that Hurricane Sandy damaged homes, businesses, and left millions without power for numerous days. Sires continued by announcing that The Federal Management Agency (FEMA) declared that aid would be available to several counties across the state, including Monmouth County. In addition to FEMA, small businesses were eligible for Physical and Economic Injury Disaster Loans from the Small Business Administration (SBA). Sires’ statement was brief and purely informative about which counties throughout the state were eligible for multiple aids. In addition, Sires stated the beginning steps as to how the counties and individuals affected by Hurricane Sandy could go about receiving aid.
Bates, Diane C. Superstorm Sandy: The Inevitable Destruction and Reconstruction of the Jersey Shore. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2016.
Bates looks at Sandy through the lens of environmental sociology and questions if we have a Sisyphean commitment to rebuilding in environmentally unsustainable places because they hold a place in our hearts.
Christie, Christopher. “Governor Christie Press Briefing in Monmouth County on Hurricane Sandy.” YouTube. 27 October 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rMuksUXwZYM
In the above press conference, Governor Chris Christie announced that New Jersey was officially in a state of emergency exactly two days before the arrival of Hurricane Sandy. Christie illustrated the potential devastation that the storm could have on the Jersey Shore; hence, he required a mandatory evacuation of the barrier islands. Christie continued by stating that each county in the state had at least one or more shelters for anyone who would be displaced as a result of the potential Hurricane. Christie emphasized that each shelter would have plenty of food, water, and basic toiletries while possessing the capability to house a maximum of twelve thousand evacuees. Christie concluded his public service announcement with the message that he would keep in touch with every county before, during, and after the storm in order to keep the citizens of New Jersey safe.
Dobrian, Joseph. 2013. “HURRICANE SANDY.” Journal of Property Management 78 (4): 28-32.
The Journal of Property Management illustrated the lessons that one should take away from the disaster of Hurricane Sandy. Joseph Dobrian explains that property managers must take away the following lessons: how buildings are developed in the future, how buildings are insured, and how to restore power in a faster, more efficient manner. Property managers must know that their business continuity plans are in place and that the human safety plans are in place too. Finally, Dobrian emphasizes the importance of a property manager to know the deductibles for his or her properties and if the owned properties have identical deductibles.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Mitigation Assessment Team. Recovery Advisories and Fact Sheets for Hurricane Sandy. https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1386072313670-21f4b31c1ebd7c79cc28664649fc90bb/Sandy_MAT_AppC_508post2.pdf
“FEMA has prepared a series of Recovery Advisories (RAs) and Fact Sheets to describe mitigation measures that can be taken to minimize future flood damage to buildings. These advisories are based on field observations conducted by the FEMA Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) deployed to evaluate the damage caused by Hurricane Sandy. All RAs and Fact Sheets prepared for Hurricane Sandy recovery activities are included in this appendix.”
FEMA Mitigation Assessment Team. History of Sandy and Hurricanes in the Northeast. https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1385590466271-3f96d4791ee402a344cfd070b9e5a476/Sandy_MAT_AppE_508post.pdf
“The northeastern region of the United States has had powerful storms make landfall in the past. These have included Tropical Storm Irene and the three nor’easters described in the sections that follow. Additional information on coastal flood and wind events that occurred between 1900 and 2010” is provided as well.
FEMA Mitigation Assessment Team. Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey and New York:
Building Performance Observations, Recommendations, and Technical Guidance. FEMA P-942. November 2013. https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1385727581485-5ef193d3342e66e129bc0b68b6f233a3/Sandy_MAT_FrontMatter.pdf
“In response to Hurricane Sandy, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) deployed a Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) to evaluate damage from the hurricane, document observations, and based on these, offer conclusions and recommendations on the performance of buildings and other structures affected by flood and wind forces. The MAT included FEMA Headquarters and Regional Office engineers, representatives from other Federal agencies, local government officials, academia, and experts from the design and construction industry. The conclusions and recommendations in this report are intended to provide decision makers, designers, contractors, planners, code officials, industry groups, government officials, academia, homeowners, and business owners and operators with information and technical guidance that can be used to reduce future hurricane damage.”
FEMA. Sandy Claims Review Division Updates. Updated through 2017. https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/107695
This page contains fact sheets for National Flood Insurance Program policyholders who were impacted by Hurricane Sandy.
Galarneau, Thomas J., J.R., Christopher A. Davis, and Melvyn A. Shapiro. 2013. “Intensification of Hurricane Sandy (2012) through Extratropical Warm Core Seclusion.” Monthly Weather Review 141 (12): 4296-4321.
The American Meteorological Society illustrates the devastation of Sandy’s storm surge as it stretched throughout multiple parts of the Northeast, specifically from the states of New Jersey to Rhode Island. The American Meteorological Society claimed that the storm caused nearly $50 billion dollars in damages along the coastline. In addition the storm surge claimed a total of seventy-two lives. The Meteorological Society described Sandy’s life cycle as being marked by two upper-level trough intersections. The first intersection occurred from October 26th to October 29th as the storm moved northward and western over the Atlantic. The second cycle of the storm occurred on October 29th as cold continental air encircled the warm vortex that was known as Sandy. The American Meteorological Society continued throughout the article to explore the dynamical processes that contributed to the first and secondary peaks of Hurricane Sandy.
Golden, Shaun, Cynthia Scott, Mike Oppegaard, and Ted Freeman. 2013. “Monmouth County Sheriff's Office Response to Superstorm Sandy.” Sheriff 65 (3): 41-45.
The above article published by the Monmouth County Sheriff’s Office illustrated the lead roles taken by the Monmouth County Office of Emergency Management in preparation for Superstorm Sandy. The article emphasized the coordinating efforts of the response and recovery teams during and after the storm. The Emergency Operations Center was in constant contact with Monmouth County’s fifty-three municipalities and dispatched resources throughout the county. The Monmouth County Sheriff's Office, Office of Emergency Management, Communications, Law Enforcement, Corrections, Policy Academy and all administrative staff is credited with assisting all municipalities during Superstorm Sandy. Ultimately, the collaboration of the aforementioned and the residents of Monmouth County meant zero deaths in the County directly related to the disastrous Superstorm.
Halpin Hoopes, Stephanie. “The Impact of Superstorm Sandy on New Jersey Towns and Households.” Rutgers: School of Public Affairs and Administration. 2013.
The above-published piece illustrated several topics following the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy, such as: Community Hardship Following Superstorm Sandy, Household Hardship Following Superstorm Sandy, Challenges and Consequences, Municipal Response, How Well did Resources Meet Needs, and Conclusion: Recommendations to Better Prepare for the Next Disaster. Halpin examines the damage caused by the Storm and the aftermath of all the affected counties throughout the state of New Jersey.
“Hurricane Sandy high-water mark signs coming to some Jersey Shore towns.” Newsworks. 28 June 2016.
The above article illustrated that as many as one hundred high-water mark signs were installed in prominent locations throughout Monmouth County to commemorate the Hurricane Sandy flood water levels. The Monmouth County High Water Mark Initiative promoted the high water mark signs. The multiple towns that were and continue to be a part of this initiative are essentially promising through the high-water mark signs that the community will continue to improve their procedures, preparation methods, flood insurance, and much more to ensure long-term action will be taken. As of June of 2016, approximately fourteen of the fifty-two Monmouth County municipalities were already participating in the High-Water Mark Initiative. The initiative pairs Monmouth University’s Urban Coast Institute, New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium, National Park Service, Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve at Rutgers University, Navy Weapons Station Earle, and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The ultimate goal of the large partnerships is to “keep the public aware of the risks associated with storms…and the signs will be…a constant reminder of the flood risks that can occur when living near the coast”.
“Hurricane Sandy Monmouth County New Jersey.” YouTube. 02 December 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuEajS4yCqs
The video above contains a slideshow displaying the images of the devastation of Hurricane Sandy throughout Monmouth County in the days following the Superstorm.
Hutner, H. “Hurricane Sandy Diary.” Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 21, no. 1 (2014): 59-67.
Heidi Hutner’s published diary entries illustrate her experience during Hurricane Sandy. The diary demonstrated Hutner’s fears for her safety, her daughter’s safety, and the safety of the east coast. Throughout the diary entries Hutner constantly questioned the fate of the entire east coast in the aftermath of the storm. Specifically, next to her and her daughter’s safety Hutner expressed her immense worry that no professional could pinpoint the strength, duration, and damage that the storm could cause.
Kim, Hong K., Mai Takematsu, Rana Biary, Nicholas Williams, Robert S. Hoffman, and Silas W. Smith. 2013. “Epidemic Gasoline Exposures Following Hurricane Sandy.” Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 28 (6): 586-91.
The disaster known as Hurricane Sandy caused: severe damages to infrastructure, disrupted essential municipal and commercial services, compromised health care delivery systems, and limited utilities like electricity, heating, water, sanitation, housing, place, populations, and much more in the devastated areas that were at risk of toxic exposures. One of the biggest disadvantages Sandy caused was the prolonged electrical outrage and damage to oil refineries, which caused a major gasoline shortage and rationing. For the first time since the 1970s, the devastated areas were suffering an extreme gasoline shortage. In addition to the gasoline shortage, over two hundred and eighty-three gas lines were left exposed. Although there were no major deaths reported as a result of the gasoline exposures, it is reported that there were numerous citizens exposed to minimum clinical toxicity levels. As a result of the gas line exposures, it is now highly recommended that local disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional poison control programs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance before, during, and after events like Hurricane Sandy.
Kryvasheyeu, Yuri, Haohui Chen, Esteban Moro, Pascal Van Hentenryck, and Manuel Cebrian. “Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy” PloS One 10, no. 2.
Hurricane Sandy is noted as the first major storm where the performance of the social network sensor methods was analyzed, evaluated, and scrutinized. It was estimated that over fifty million twitter messages were posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. The above-mentioned messages solely focus on messages that contained any important information about location of loved ones, location of power outages, location of safe places, and warnings. The information flow that social media provided during catastrophic events like Hurricane Sandy has since become a critical aspect of communication during any upcoming natural disasters like Hurricane Sandy. With the increasing popularity of social media in the five years since Hurricane Sandy, social media has become a critical aspect within disaster management in notification of an impending disaster, notification during the disaster, and notification about how to cope with the aftermath of the disaster.
Kyvig, David E., and Myron A. Marty. Nearby History: Exploring the Past around You. New York, New York: Altamira Press, 2010.
Kyvig and Marty’s work illustrates the importance of local history. Kyvig and Marty refute that history is solely located in Washington D.C., Philadelphia, Boston, and other locations that the average person might believe to be “historic.” History occurs every day; it occurs anywhere and everywhere; an “artifact” can be as small and “common” as a utensil or as large as a detailed diary.
Laskin, Pam. 2013. “Hurricane Sandy.” Black Renaissance 13 (2): 105-105, 183.
Pam Laskin, a professor at The City College of New York, published the poem illustrating the demolition, destruction, and devastation that Hurricane Sandy caused throughout the entire tri-state area in the autumn of 2012.
Livio, Susan K., Rundquist, Jeanette. “Hurricane Sandy leaves total devastation in Monmouth County.” The Star-Ledger. 01 November 2012.
The Star-Ledger published an article days after Hurricane Sandy describing the devastation of communities like Union Beach and other communities that are located on the coast of the Raritan Bay. In Union Beach alone more than one hundred homes were destroyed, thirty of those one hundred homes were completely washed away. Shaun Golden, the Sheriff of Monmouth County, explained that the devastation in Union Beach was different from the other towns’ devastation because, “Every town presents its own unique scenario.” Specifically, Union Beach and other destroyed towns on the water were blocked off, as officials were making sure that the grounds were structurally safe before any citizen was allowed to return. Devastated citizens witnessed the remains of their homes, their memories, and their personal belongings, flung about. The citizens attempted to sift through the rubble to gather any remaining personal belongings or possessions of any significance. Sheriff Shaun Golden confirmed that no deaths occurred in Monmouth County during Hurricane Sandy.
Magnusson, Linus, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, Simon T. K. Lang, Alan Thorpe, Nils Wedi, and Munehiko Yamaguchi. 2014. “Evaluation of Medium-Range Forecasts for Hurricane Sandy.” Monthly Weather Review 142 (5): 1962-1981.
The American Meteorological Society illustrated the performance of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) demonstrated the high resolution and ensemble of Hurricane Sandy as it was evaluated from numerous numerical weather prediction centers. The data continues to be available for viewing from The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment and the Interactive Grand Global Ensemble archive. Within the archive the model resolutions of the forecasts of Hurricane Sandy illustrates the clear indication of the landfall of the Superstorm seven days in advance. In the aftermath of the storm the ECMWF illustrated that its forecast was the most consistent of all the forecasts when predicting the Superstorm’s landfall and ultimate destruction path along the New Jersey coastline.
Miles, Kathryn. Superstorm: Nine Days Insider Hurricane Sandy. New York, New York: Penguin Group, 2014.
Kathryn Miles’s book illustrates multiple stories leading up to Hurricane Sandy. Within Miles’s novel she spends a large portion of the story explaining the science of the creation of the storm in the Caribbean and the numerous factors that caused the storm to grow and expand until it became the monster known as Superstorm Sandy. In addition to the science of the storm, Miles illustrates a few of the stories of those who lost their lives during the storm because of refusals to evacuate, confidence in sailing skills, and just overall being underprepared for the power, strength, and destruction the storm would bring to the East Coast.
Monmouth County Sheriff’s Office, Emergency Management Division, https://www.mcsonj.org/divisions/emergency-management/
“A division of the Monmouth County Sheriff’s Office, the Monmouth County Office of Emergency Management is responsible for the development, maintenance and implementation of the County’s All Hazard Emergency Operations Plan. The plan is made up of 15 functional annexes that outline how the county will function during emergency or disaster conditions. The office also acts as the conduit to the New Jersey Office of Emergency Management for the 53 municipal emergency management programs. Through a multi-disciplinary working group which is comprised of various different response organizations, the office also manages all of the homeland security funding that is received by the county.”
“Monmouth University after Hurricane Sandy-NJ New Jersey Shore.” YouTube. 03 November 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hwJ9mQprzX4
The above video illustrated the damage Hurricane Sandy caused to the Monmouth University Campus. The video was taken Tuesday, October 30th, 2012 the day after the storm. Within the video one observes how numerous trees around the campus collapsed, damaging one of the world's most beautiful campuses.
The National Hurricane center, http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/
“The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is a component of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) located at Florida International University in Miami, Florida. The NHC mission is to save lives, mitigate property loss, and improve economic efficiency by issuing the best watches, warnings, forecasts, and analyses of hazardous tropical weather and by increasing understanding of these hazards. The NHC vision is to be America's calm, clear, and trusted voice in the eye of the storm and, with its partners, enable communities to be safe from tropical weather threats.”
The National Weather Service, https://www.weather.gov/
The NWS “provide weather, water, and climate data, forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and enhancement of the national economy.”
O’Dea, Colleen. “Interactive Map: Assessing Damage from Superstorm Sandy.” New Jersey Spotlight: News, Issues, and Insight for New Jersey. 15 March 2013. http://www.njspotlight.com/stories/13/03/14/assessing-damage-from-superstorm-sandy/
This online interactive map allows users to explore the damages caused by Hurricane Sandy throughout the entire state of New Jersey.
“Launched in February 2003, Ready is a National public service campaign designed to educate and empower the American people to prepare for, respond to and mitigate emergencies, including natural and man-made disasters. The goal of the campaign is to promote preparedness through public involvement.
Ready and its Spanish language version Listo ask individuals to do four key things: (1) stay informed about the different types of emergencies that could occur and their appropriate responses (2) make a family emergency plan and (3) build an emergency supply kit, and (4) get involved in your community by taking action to prepare for emergencies.”
Ritchie, Donald A. Doing Oral History. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Donald A. Ritchie’s book analyzes, demonstrates, and examines the numerous and complicated aspects of correctly compiling an oral history. It is so, so much more than just turning on a recorder. Ritchie illustrates every details from large concepts such as how to go about conducting an oral history interview to small concepts such as when an interview should be broken up into multiple sessions. Each session should last no more than two hours each to prevent the interviewer or the interviewee from exhaustion. In addition, Ritchie reviews the history of collecting oral histories and how the histories have evolved over time. Most importantly, Ritchie emphasizes that as an interviewer research must always be compiled before the interview and that an interviewer should refrain from altering, changing, or modifying the interviewees’ answers at any point throughout the interview.
Schwartz, Ariel. “The Demographics of Hurricane Sandy.” Co. Design. 06 November 2012.
The above article compares and contrasts the concept of which demographic population was affected most during and in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Within this brief overview article, Schwartz concludes that one specific demographic or group of people suffered more or less than any other demographic. All in all, “nobody was prepared for this magnitude of a storm”.
“Shore to Rebuild.” YouTube. 10 January 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AB8hTiDyIR0
The above video is an hour-long documentary illustrating the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy along the coastline of New Jersey. The video specifically features residents from Ocean and Monmouth Counties sharing their stories about their experience of Superstorm Sandy.
Sobel, Adam. Storm Surge: Hurricane Sandy, Our Changing Climate, and Extreme Weather of the Past and Future. New York, New York: Harper Wave, 2014.
A scientist’s take on whether or not manmade climate change can be linked to increases in storms like Sandy.
Van Embden, Edward. “Hurricane Sandy Damaged Princess Cottage Torn Down” YouTube. 09 January 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v04Kq5qDLLo
The infamous Princess Cottage located in Union Beach, New Jersey was physically split in half as a result of the massive flooding from the Raritan Bay during Hurricane Sandy. The Princess Cottage has since become the iconic image of the devastation caused by Hurricane Sandy.
Surviving Sandy: The Superstorm That Reshaped Our Lives. Ambient Funding: 2013.
Per Amazon.com: “AMBIENT is an IRS 501(c)(3)-registered charity supporting the funding needs of the PASCACK VALLEY LEARNING CENTER (‘PVLC’). PVLC is a private school located in Airmont NY, serving families living in the Tri-State metropolitan area of NYC. While the names of the PVLC contributors to the book are too numerous to list, the book would never have become a reality without the coordinating ‘authorship’ efforts of Arne Ewing (NJ) and Robert Scott (NY). Students of PVLC, and their families and friends, were heavily engaged in support of the rescue and recovery efforts following Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, giving them many firsthand impressions of the awesome devastation of the storm. Subsequently, this led to their combining these experiences in order to bring real stories and full-color pictures to life in a 300-page coffee table book.”