Statistical information on the state of education in America from the latest census is available from the The United States Census Bureau
2012 will be the final year the Statistical Abstract of the United States will be available in print, click the book link at the bottom of this tab to see the catalog record. You can access Statistical Abstract of the United States online as well.
The Condition of Education: A Statistical Report on the Condition of American Education 1983+ is available online at National Center for Educational Statistics
For additional government statistics on education use FedStats.