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CO 225-04/07/08: Business & Professional Communication: MLA Citation Help

Cite Your Sources

Citation is your indication that certain material in your work came from another source. It also provides readers with the information necessary to find that source again. Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing.

The following situations almost always require citation:

  • quotation
  • paraphrasing
  • use of an idea not your own
  • specific reference to the work of another
  • use of someone else's work to develop your own ideas

Adapted from: Plagiarism.org

MLA Handbook (9th ed.)

A copy of the MLA Handbook is available at the Library's Reference Desk. Click here for a video overview of what's new in the 9th edition.

NOTE: The MLA Handbook was updated to its 9th edition in 2021. Refer to the MLA Style Center for useful tools, guidelines and discussion of specific MLA topics.

MLA Citation Style (9th ed.)

This guide from Josh Vossler of Citrus College walks you through the basics of MLA Style (9th edition).

MLA Style online

The MLA Style Center website provides useful resources including notices on recent updates and sample papers. Updated for brand new 9th edition released in 2021!

MLA Examples

There have been some changes to Works Cited formatting for MLA 9. These examples are adapted from Excelsior Online Writing Lab and Monmouth University's Resources for Writers. 

A book with two authors:
Authors’ names (only the first is reversed). Title. Publisher, Year.

Cole, George F. and Christopher E. Smith. Criminal Justice in America. Wadsworth, 1996. 

An article in a scholarly journal:
Author. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Volume number, Issue number, Month or season (if available) Year, Page numbers.

Goldsmith, Meredith. “White Skin, White Mask: Passing, Posing, and Performing in The Great Gatsby.” MFS Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 49, no. 3, Fall 2003, pp. 443-68. 

A newspaper or magazine article published on the web:
Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper or Magazine Title, Date of Publication (if available), URL (without http:// or https://).

Nordland, Rod. "Iran Plays Host to Delegations after Iraq Elections." New York Times, 1 Apr. 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/04/02/world/middleeast/02iraq.html?_r=0.

A publication in an online database:
Author. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Volume number, Issue number, Month or season (if available) Year, Page numbers. Name of Database, URL (without http:// or https://). Note: In terms of volume and issue, one or both may be available.

Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000, pp. 17-18. Project Muse, muse.jhu.edu/article/37463.

NOTE: MLA now requires full URLs for online material. For online articles within a database, you should look for a stable link to an article (permalink). However, if your article includes a DOI (digital object identifier), that information should be provided instead of the URL. Look for the DOI in the article's detailed record.

Citation Help

Here are some great resources to help with proper citation styles:

   OWL: Excelsior Online Writing Lab 

This handy open source guide from Excelsior College provides reference and instruction on conducting research, preventing plagiarism and use of APA, MLA and Chicago Style citations.

    NoodleTools

This research platform offers tools for note-taking, outlining, citation, document archiving/annotation and collaborative research and writing. You will need to create a personal account to save your work. 

     Resources for Writers

The Monmouth University Writing Center provides style sheets for writing, grammar, citation styles and the writing process on its Resources for Writers page. One-on-one assistance available by appointment.

Zotero

This platform offers tools that assist with collecting, organizing and citing research as well as for collaborative research and writing. You will need to create a personal account to save your work.